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All samples should be centrifuged prior to analysis.
Blood stained samples are not suitable for analysis of total protein and LDH.In horses and cattle, ventral oedema is much more likely to be encountered than ascites in animals with congestive heart failure.Effusions are easily diagnosed by ultrasonography and this modality may also be used to guide fine needle aspiration to obtain a sample of the fluid.When the production and reabsorption of the ultrafiltrate is not balanced, fluid may accumulate, resulting in effusion.Effusions may be classified as transudate or exudate.Moreover, all but one exudate had at least one of these three characteristics, whereas only one transudate had any of the three.
The simultaneous use of both the pleural-fluid protein and LDH levels better differentiates transudates from exudates than does the use of either of these values individually.Classifying a serous fluid as transudate or exudate can provide a valuable initial diagnostic step and aid diagnosis of underlying cause.In this prospective study of 150 pleural effusions, the utility of pleural-fluid cell counts, protein levels, and lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) levels for the separation of transudates from exudates was evaluated.These conditions usually are associated with relatively small-volume pericardial effusion, and cardiac tamponade is rare.In cats, pericardial effusion is most commonly associated with CHF from cardiomyopathy. Their cellularity (approximately 1000 to 8000 cells/µl) is still low, but total protein concentration (approximately 2.5 to 5 g/dl) and specific gravity (1.015 to 1.030) are higher than those of a pure .